Prologue: Journal on Language and Literature <p><strong>Prologue: Journal on Language and Literature is an academic journal published by the Faculty of Letters, Balikpapan University. It is published twice a year, namely in March and September. The scopes of the topics include but not limited to (1) Literature; (2) Linguistics; (3) Applied Linguistics, and; (4) Cultural Studies. The papers will include research reports that bring new insight into the existing theories, critical review of current theories, and literary review. </strong></p> <p><strong>Prologue is <a href="">accredited SINTA 5</a> by the National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia.</strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong><img src="" alt="" width="332" height="199" /></strong></a></p> <p> </p> <p>Visi Fakultas Sastra:</p> <p>Menjadi Fakultas Sastra terkemuka di tingkat nasional yang memiliki daya saing global dalam menciptakan lulusan dan pengembangan ilmu sastra, ilmu bahasa dan ilmu-ilmu humaniora lainnya yang mengepankan etika keilmuan dan profesionalitas sekaligus berperan aktif, signifikan dan berkelanjutan dalam Tri Darma Tinggi tahun 2025</p> <p>Misi Fakultas Sastra:</p> <ol> <li>Menyelenggarakan pendidikan tinggi Sastra Inggris yang terintegrasi dengan pengetahuan dan pemahaman Kritik Sastra Inggris, Ilmu Bahasa, Budaya, Penerjemahan Bahasa Inggris dan Jurnalistik guna menghasilkan lulusan professional dengan kompetensi tinggi.</li> <li>Menyelenggarakan penelitian dalam rangka mengembangkan Ilmu Sastra Inggris, Ilmu Budaya, Penerjemahan Bahasa Inggris dan Jurnalistik yang selaras dengan kebutuhan masyarakat di tingkat lokal, regional, nasional dan internasional.</li> <li>Menyelenggarakan pengabdian kepada masyarakat di bidang pengembangan Ilmu Sastra Inggris, Ilmu Bahasa, Budaya, Penerjemahan Bahasa Inggris dan Jurnalistik khususnya penyelenggaraan literasi Bahasa Inggris, Sastra Inggris dan literasi Budaya lokal dan regional kepada masyarakat secara berkesinambungan.</li> <li>Menyelenggarakan kerjasama regional, nasional, dan internasional untuk mengembangkan Ilmu Sastra dan Ilmu Bahasa, Penerjemahan Bahasa Inggris, Budaya serta Jurnalistik dalam usaha meningkatkan mutu lulusan.</li> </ol> <p> </p> en-US (Muhammad Adam) (Anna Anganita Theresia Latumeten, M.Hum.) Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Politeness as the Effort to Maintain Social Relation in the Novel Emma by Jane Austen <p>This thesis explores politeness as the effort to maintain social relations in the novel <em>Emma </em>by Jane Austen. There are two objectives of this research; 1) to find out about the forms of politeness in the novel <em>Emma </em>by Jane Austen and 2) to find out how politeness maintains the social relations in the novel <em>Emma </em>by Jane Austen. The theory used in this research is the politeness theory by Brown and Levinson and social relation by Max Weber. The methodology employed is qualitative research in which the researcher tries to present the material descriptively. As for the source of data, these were collected from quotations in the novel to find the character's utterances which show the appropriate manner in particular situations to achieve and maintain successful social relationship with the addressee. The result of this research based on the findings concluded that negative politeness 35% is dominating in maintaining communal 20% and associative 15% relationships. Followed by positive politeness 28% is also widely used in the novel to maintain communal 15% and associative relationships 12%. Both appear in characters' utterances to indicate someone with respect and where only a part of the occasion or means of conflict is eliminated.</p> Qori Annisa, Jepri Copyright (c) 2023 Qori Annisa, Jepri Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Metaphorical Expressions about Passion of Woman’s Life in the Novel Pegasus and Olympus at War by Kate O’Hearn <p>There are three objectives of this research; 1) to find the metaphorical expression about Passion of a woman life, 2) to find the meaning of metaphorical expression about Passion of a woman life. The theory being used in this research is Semiotics by limiting the discussion only on Peirce Triangle of Meaning/Semiosis. This theory are applied by determine and classify metaphorical expressions about Passion of woman life into 3 parts in Triangle of Meaning by Peirce. The methodoogy employed is qualitative research in which the researcher tried to present the issues descriptively. As for the data, they were collected from the text within the novel. The dialogues in the text were taken out as the primary data. From the first research question, the researcher conclude that the representament of this research is kind of Legisign, the object is symbol, and the interpretant is dicent sign/dicisign. The researcher also found that there are some illustrated of the main character in this novel, called Emily. She described as emotional, enthusiastic, uncontrollable, strong, faithful, and unaffected also dependable girl. From the second research question, the representament of this research is kind of sinisign, the object is symbol, and the interpretant is dicent sign/dicisign.</p> Waladdin Panggabean, Nofansyah Copyright (c) 2023 Waladdin Panggabean, Nofansyah Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies for Translating Swearing Expressions found in Seperti Dendam, Rindu Harus Dibayar Tuntas into English <p>This article examines swear word translation in Eka Kurniawan's Indonesian novel, Seperti Dendam, and its English version, Vengeance. The study analyzes swearing expressions and translation strategies using a qualitative approach. Data from both novels reveals seventeen swear words across eight themes. Swear words are classified into four function types and a mixed function. The translator employed five main strategies, maintaining function and theme being the most common. The findings show the translator aimed to preserve the original function and theme while adapting to the target text's style. Indonesian swear words share similarities with English counterparts in function and theme.</p> Yosafat Barona Valentino Copyright (c) 2023 Yosafat Barona Valentino Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ Reluctance on Attending the Webinar Tutorial (Tuweb) of Speaking Course: A Case Study at Universitas Terbuka <p>It can be difficult to motivate students to attend classes while using a digital platform for instruction. Students at Universitas Terbuka who have registered for the Speaking course's online tutorial program are required to attend every session of the webinar tutorial (Tuweb) synchronously. However, the tutors' evaluations revealed that the student's attendance in these real-time classes was not optimum. This study aims to investigate the problem by looking at the reasons why students find it difficult to enroll in the Speaking course synchronously. A qualitative case study using type 2 design where the researcher compared each online class to another. Participants in this study are tutors from sixteen Tuweb courses. The author divided the class into two sections based on the attendance rates, with the highest and lowest divisions being used for comparison. Based on the analysis of data, it is found that there were at least two kinds of problems in Tuweb which the author labeled as generalized external constraint and personalized internal constraint. The researcher also found that two reasons can affect the students' reluctance level in Tuweb class, the first is the personal approach and the second one is the non-personal approach.</p> Siti Hadianti Copyright (c) 2023 Siti Hadianti Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Second Language Acquisition Three Year Old Children in the Angkola Batak Tribe <p>This study provided about the acquiring language in three years old boy in small family scope. The main point of this research was Batak Angkola boy who spoke Indonesian in Padangsidimpuan. The data which were used for this analyzing was authentic had got by making observation. These data were also analyzed based on three main features is analyzing based on the sentence structure; analyzing based on sentence pattern, and analyzing based on the quantity of data utterances in each utterances. The acquisition language in three years old boy was founded that the sentences were not complete yet in his utterances and it was usually simple sentence. Based on the number of utterances for each speech turn, it is proven that a three year old child in speaking only answers questions from the interlocutor. This study is still far from perfect. The scope of the discussion which was originally deliberately used to limit this study, is not impossible, but it is actually dwarfing the scope of the discussion.</p> Jusrin Efendi Pohan Jusrin Efendi Pohan Copyright (c) 2023 Jusrin Efendi Pohan Jusrin Efendi Pohan Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Use of Fanfiction as Authentic Materials in English Language Teaching: A Perspective from a Reading Class <p>This research aims to investigate students' perceptions of fanfiction as authentic materials to enhance their reading skills. The participants of this research were 30 students in a state vocational school in Banten. This case study started with the implementation of using Fanfiction in the reading class in five consecutive meetings to give students exposure to Fanfiction stories. During the implementation, reflective notes were used to describe students’ responses towards the use of Fanfictions in relation to their reading skills. Questionnaires consisting of closed and open-ended items were also used to collect data regarding students’ views of the use of Fanfiction in improving their reading skills. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the quantitative data, while thematic analysis was used to analyse the quantitative data. The results of quantitative and qualitative data analysis showed that the participants showed a positive perception towards the use of fanfiction in enhancing their reading skills although some of the students stated that they had difficulties in understanding the texts due to their lack of vocabulary. The findings of the study could inform pedagogical practices in the classroom that teachers could consider the use of Fanfiction by taking into account students’ needs, interests, and English proficiency.</p> Felicia Cornella Austin, Wulandari Santoso Copyright (c) 2023 Felicia Cornella Austin, Wulandari Santoso Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Analysis of the Translation Surah Al-Fatihah in the Rhymed Free Translation of the Quran in the Acehnese Language <p>This research aims to comprehend the meaning contained in the free verse translation of the Acehnese language Quran in Surah Al-Fatihah. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive research. The data is analysed using introspection method because the researcher is a native speaker of Acehnese. Introspection method is a way to obtain data by using the language intuition of someone who learns the original language, to provide the necessary data for analysis according to the research objectives. The results obtained in this study indicate that Surah Al-Fatihah is an opening chapter that holds significant meaning as the preface to the recitation of the entire verses of the Quran. In the process of translating these verses, a deep understanding of the linguistic complexity of the Acehnese language itself is required. The translation of Surah Al-Fatihah into Acehnese adds a cultural and linguistic dimension to the experience of reading the Quran for Acehnese speakers. This allows the speakers to feel more connected to the text on a profound level. With the existence of a free verse translation of the Quran in Acehnese, a path is paved or an opportunity is opened to strengthen the Acehnese language with all its attributes</p> Rahil Helmi, Wita Dwi Payana Copyright (c) 2023 Rahil Helmi, Wita Dwi Payana Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis of Students’ Difficulties in Writing Descriptive Paragraph <p>This study analyzed the students' difficulties in writing descriptive text through vocabulary, grammatical error, and unorganized writing problems. This study conducted a case study as qualitative research on students in 3rd grade at SMPN 1 Kuta Panjang Gayo Lues. The sample consisted of 10 students by using purposive sampling. This study used observation and interview methods. The students write a descriptive text according to the topic given by the researcher. Then, the researcher categorized and analyzed the students’ work. The result of the study showed that the students’ ability to write descriptive paragraphs is still low, and they face some difficulties in learning English.</p> Jusnaini Hasni Jusnaini Hasni Copyright (c) 2023 Jusnaini Hasni Jusnaini Hasni Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Dynamic Nature of Language: Language Features Variations Between Male and Female Characters in Falling for Christmas Movie <p>The dynamic nature of language is illustrated by the emergence of variations in language features that differ the male and female language feature. This study aims to identify differences in language features between male and female characters in “Falling for Christmas” movie. Furthermore, the researchers aim to see to what extent are gender stereotypes in relation to language characteristics depicted in these characters. Descriptive qualitative method with document analysis instrument are used to collect the data which then analysed to produce several conclusions, such as: some of the research results are in line with previous research on language variation between genders where female tend to have language features such as lexical hedges, taq questions, empty adjectives, intensifiers, avoidance of swear words; meanwhile male tend to have minimal responses, compliments, and talking about their interests. These findings are partly consistent with societal stereotypes around male and female communication skills. However, there are some that are not appropriate, such as hypercorrect grammar which is stereotyped to female, and also direct words, and taboo words that are usually intended to male. Other findings found that empty adjectives is the most often used language feature by female, and the minimal responses is by male.</p> Andrias, Lerissa Daniela, Agnes Copyright (c) 2023 Andrias, Lerissa Daniela, Agnes Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Minimum Competency Assessment (MCA) of Student Literacy Skills in Information Text Material for Junior High School Students <p>The purpose of this research is to analyze the reading literacy skills of junior high school students based on the Minimum Competency Assessment (MCA). The participants in this study involved 50 students. The instrument used in the research referred to the types of MCA questions. The method used in this research is quantitative descriptive, which only describes students' literacy skills in information text material without any specific treatment. The research subjects were selected based on cluster random sampling techniques. The data obtained through the research were analyzed with descriptive statistics by determining the average test scores of students to determine the level of students' literacy skills in information text material based on assessment criteria. The research results showed that the reading literacy skills of junior high school students are still in the low category, which is caused by a lack of experience in solving MCA question types, proficiency in information text, educational level, availability of learning resources, teaching methods, and motivation to learn. The low performance of students in reading skills needs to be a special concern, especially by educational institutions, to adjust the implementation of learning that can improve students' reading skills in information text material.</p> Wita Dwi Payana, Rahil Helmi Copyright (c) 2023 Wita Dwi Payana, Rahil Helmi Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Aspect of Equivalence in Tourism Text <p><em>Tourism texts should achieve their function as promotional texts. The complexity of translating tourism texts requires an appropriate translation technique. The proper translation techniques contribute to the equivalence of translation. This study aims to explain the impact of translation techniques on equivalence. This study used the solo calendar of event 2018 as source of data. Meanwhile, the data is all utterances in the text. The concept of translation as act of communication involves in the study as a parameter in achieving the equivalence. The results indicate the use of translation techniques, namely modulation, literal, calque, and duplet. The most dominant translation techniques is calque while the less dominant is modulation. The achievement of translation equivalence is determined by the target readers' understanding and the text's communication function. The equivalence translation shows the success of the translated text function.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Translation, Tourism, Techniques, Equivalence, Solo</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rahmat Wisudawanto Copyright (c) 2023 Rahmat Wisudawanto Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Error Analysis on the Use of Past Tense in Recount Text by 6th Grade Elementary Students <p>Writing is a difficult skill in English learning. It is not easy to have a good skill in writing because writing is an activity that needs more concentration and practice. In addition, students must know the English grammar rule in writing a text. The difficulties in writing can cause the students to make errors in their writing. When the students have limited knowledge about grammar and vocabulary, they will make errors in making sentences. The structure of the sentences will be inappropriate according to the structure rules and the meaning will be not clear. The errors occur in the students’ writing not only in grammar and vocabulary but also in expressing their ideas in English. This research aimed to find out typical errors on 6<sup>th</sup> grade elementary school students in writing recount text. However, researchers took primary data to obtain the result. There were 65 students writing recount text for this research. Qualitative approach was used for this research. The result stated that most students made errors on grammar aspects (noun, verb, determinant/article, preposition) with a percentage of 55,03%.&nbsp; Next, students made errors on punctuation which is 27,96%. Lastly, students made an error on spelling only 17,0%.&nbsp;</p> Dinda Ismu Asyifa, Muhammad Fikri Yazid Copyright (c) 2023 Dinda Ismu Asyifa, Muhammad Fikri Yazid Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Developing English Vocabulary Module as Learning Media for Applied English for Communication <p>This research aims to develop an effective English vocabulary module as a learning media for the Applied English for Communication course. The study applied Research and Development (RnD) model using the ADDIE design. The module consists of six topics with relevant vocabulary exercises. Besides, the module was validated by subject matter experts and media experts, who rated it with an average score of 4.7. A questionnaire was also distributed to the students and overall average score of 0.85, indicating high acceptance of the module among the students. Additionally, the effectiveness of the module was assessed through pre-test and post-test evaluations. The researcher also conducted tests for normality, homogeneity, and significance using SPSS version 16. The normality test resulted in values of 0.39 for the pre-test phase and 0.12 for the post-test phase, indicating normal distribution of the data. The homogeneity test yielded a significance value of 0.468, indicating group homogeneity. The significance test showed a value of 0.000, indicating a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores. Thus, it can be concluded that the developed English vocabulary module is an effective learning media for the Applied English for Communication course in the Hindus’ Communication Studies program-STAHN Mpu Kuturan Singaraja.</p> Gusti Ayu Putu Diah Permata Sari AR, Ketut Yuniati, I Gusti Agung Ngurah Agung Yudha Pramiswara, I Nyoman Ariyoga, I Komang Agus Widiantara, Putu Wiraningsih Copyright (c) 2023 Gusti Ayu Putu Diah Permata Sari AR, Ketut Yuniati, I Gusti Agung Ngurah Agung Yudha Pramiswara, I Nyoman Ariyoga, I Komang Agus Widiantara, Putu Wiraningsih Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis of Directive Speech Acts by The Main Characters in Jurassic World Dominion Movie <p><em>This study aims to determine the types of Directive Speech Acts used by the main characters in the movie of Jurassic World Dominion (2022). This study applies the theory of Searle (1976) to the types of Directive Speech Acts. The subject of this study is the conversation of the main characters in the movie. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach and Simak Bebas Libat Cakap (SBLC) technique to gather and analyze the data. The results of this study reveal two things,first, Question ranks the highest score with 46 utterances (57,5%), because the genre of the movie is action automatically every conversation will be followed by action from the listener. Meanwhile, Permission 2 utterances (3.7%) rank the lowest score, because the movie is about an adventure and there are not too many formal words found. Finally, Permission is the least commonly used because most of the dialogue in this movie is about adventure, and the relationships between the players are closely intertwined without any age restrictions.</em></p> Nensi Asma Yulia Putri, Rahma Yanti, Irsyad Shabri, Yalmiadi, Thiska Septa Maiza Copyright (c) 2023 Nensi Asma Yulia Putri, Rahma Yanti, Irsyad Shabri, Yalmiadi, Thiska Septa Maiza Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students Perceptions of Mechanical Engineering Department of Balikpapan University and Balikpapan Foreign Language Academy Semester I on The Application of the RQA(Reading, Questioning, And Answering) Method in English Courses <p>This research discusses RQA (Reading, Question, and Answer), This RQA learning model is a newly developed model taking into account the fact that all students who are given reading assignments are not interested in reading the assignment. This strategy forces students to read the material given because this strategy requires them to use reading texts, and then answer the questions, students formulate questions so that they force students to think critically and think maximally about the things they have read, The implementation of RQA can motivate undergraduate students to read the assigned material and have an impact on improving the understanding of learning material. These findings provide valuable insights into how students perceive and experience the RQA method in their English learning activities. However, to enhance the comprehensiveness of your research report, you might consider providing direct quotes from participants to illustrate their views and experiences. Additionally, you could discuss the implications of these findings for educators and curriculum developers, such as the need for clearer guidance on RQA method implementation and the advantages of using text in a concise format.</p> Era Wahyu Ningsih, Fitrahnanda Ayubadiah Copyright (c) 2023 Era Wahyu Ningsih, Fitrahnanda Ayubadiah Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Language Power in Virtual Market: Analyzing Illocutionary Functions of Marketplaces’ Slogan in Indonesia <p>This research aims to find the classification of the illocutionary act and illocutionary function in slogan online marketplace in Indonesia. The data are taken from the highest-ranking visitation by the customer on the website during June 2023. The main theory used is based on Yule (2010) about the illocutionary act and Leech (1993) about the illocutionary functions. The research uses a descriptive qualitative method. The result of the research shows 4 types of the illocutionary act. They are assertive, commissive, directive, and declarative and the illocutionary functions based on most classifications appear that be collaborative and competitive.</p> Ponia Mega Septiana, Wiwi Widuri Sinta Putri Sari, Imam Muhtadi Copyright (c) 2023 Ponia Mega Septiana, Wiwi Widuri Sinta Putri Sari, Imam Muhtadi Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ESP Students’ Perception toward the Utilization of Tik Tok Application for Improving English Skills <p>Students' 21st-century talents, including their English language skills, must be cultivated in this increasingly globalized period. According to previous studies, this application is one of the finest approaches for English education. It is also popular for facilitating successful English learning, however, research on the usage of Tik Tok in the context of ESP, notably in English for Midwifery courses, is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine students' perceptions of utilizing Tik Tok for English learning in the post-pandemic era. This study included 61 students from the Midwifery Department at Poltekkes Kemenkes Malang during the academic year of 2022/2023. To collect data, online questionnaires and written interviews were provided to the students. The findings revealed that the students had a favorable attitude toward using Tik Tok to learn English. This study examined students' perspectives on Tik Tok in English language acquisition in the context of ESP, specifically English for Midwifery. It is also suggested that Tik Tok be used as a learning media because it has been shown to be useful in assisting students in getting the chunk of learning objectives that positively impact their English skills, particularly in the ESP environment.</p> Eka Wulandari, Yuyun Putri Mandasari Copyright (c) 2023 Eka Wulandari, Yuyun Putri Mandasari Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Conflict of Resilience in Maya Angelou’s “Still I Rise” (1978): Psychosocial Analysis <p>"Still I Rise" by Maya Angelou is a poem that represents the African American experience in the United States. The messages inside the poem declare her liberation from her traumatic past, including racial oppression, national boundaries, and sexism. This research aims to reveal the psychological conflict Maya Angelou encountered while facing trauma as a black race. This research uses a qualitative data collection method that is more descriptive and interpretive by focusing on in-depth observations of themes and imagery in poetry written by Maya Angelou's figure regarding the experience of traumatic events in the past. Using psychosocial analysis by Erik Erikson to find how the speaker's subconscious desires to become more resilient and ultimately love herself after the conflict occurs to her. The writer represents the poem as the resilience of a black woman who went free from her husband even though she experienced psychological conflict. Through her poem titled "Still I Rise<em>"</em>, Maya Angelou successfully depicts her psychological issues and how she omitted herself from the traumatic experience of being a second-class citizen living in America, which constantly received oppression and discrimination. Thus, it is found that she did indeed feel inferior to it, but later she become fine.</p> Krisna Deni M. Hamzah, Azahra Dian Jeanza, Rachel Arifa, Nur Rohmi Listyanti, Rina Saraswati Copyright (c) 2023 Krisna Deni M. Hamzah, Azahra Dian Jeanza, Rachel Arifa, Nur Rohmi Listyanti, Rina Saraswati Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Daenerys Targaryen in George R. R. Martin's A Game of Thrones: Feminist Criticism <p>The study analysed a prominent character in George R. R. Martin's A Game of Thrones, Daenerys Targaryen, through feminist criticism. The study employed qualitative document analysis of the novel where discourse in the forms of characters’ conversations and the author’s narration surrounding Daenerys were interpreted through feminist criticism. The study found seven main themes regarding how Daenerys was portrayed. The first was her obedience to her brother, Viserys. The second was her forced marriage to Khal Drogo for her brother's interest. Thirdly, despite the marriage, Daenerys had an unequal position to Khal Drogo, with her treated as merely an object of sexual pleasure rather than a partner. The next two themes highlight Daenerys' growing courage to defy Viserys and her elevated position among her husband's people after successfully asserting herself in her marriage to Khal Drogo and being pregnant with his boy child. The next theme was her loss of power due to her husband's loss of power due to ill-health. The last highlights her strong conviction against all odds and her self-made rise to power by "birthing" dragons and coming out of the fire unscathed.<em><br /></em></p> Adaninggar Septi Subekti Copyright (c) 2023 Adaninggar Septi Subekti Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Psikologis yang Kronis Para Tokoh Sentimentalisme Calon Mayat: Psikoanalisis Freudian <p>Sony Karsono's short story as an absurd and obscure literary product turns out to have a human message that is rarely known by the public. This article only uses Sentimentalisme Calon Mayat, Melankoli, and Insomnia. The three short stories present various mental problems: from the Oedipus complex, to sexual aversion disorder, to agalmathophobia. This phenomenon is caused by activities that are commonly known by the public, such as the lack of a father's approach to his child, sexual problems by men, and a woman's mood swings. Finally, the impact of phenomena like this shows a dangerous condition, such as suicide, cutting genitals, to feel proud to be married and have children with dolls. This article utilizes the Freudian psychoanalytic paradigm as its study. Freud believed that the good or bad of a person's activity is determined by how big the problem he is facing.</p> Rafi Ferdiansyah, Jiphie Gilia Indriyani Copyright (c) 2023 Rafi Ferdiansyah, Jiphie Gilia Indriyani Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pengaruh Superego Perempuan terhadap Ego Pria dalam Memutuskan Pilihannya pada Cerpen “Dolar” Karya Tommy F. Awuy <p>Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh dominasi superego tokoh-tokoh perempuan terhadap ego tokoh pria dalam memutuskan pilihannya dalam cerpen "Dolar" karya Tommy F. Awuy. Studi ini merupakan studi deskriptif kualitatif. Obyek studi yang digunakan adalah cerpen “Dolar”, karya Tommy F. Awuy. Dalam cerpen ini, terdapat tiga tokoh perempuan yang mempengaruhi tokoh pria, Toyip, dalam mengambil keputusan, yaitu istri Toyip, pelanggan setia bajaj Toyip, Nora, dan penumpang bule, Merry Cohen. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan psikoanalisis Freud untuk memahami interaksi antara id, ego, dan superego dalam diri tokoh pria saat dihadapkan pada tuntutan moral, dilema, dan pengaruh eksternal dari tokoh-tokoh perempuan tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dominasi superego tokoh-tokoh perempuan memengaruhi perubahan dalam perilaku dan keputusan Toyip. &nbsp;</p> Ulum Janah, Anna Anganita Theresia Latumeten Copyright (c) 2023 Ulum Janah, Anna Anganita Theresia Latumeten Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Stereotyping as the Trigger Factor of Discrimination in Ghost Boys by Jewell Parker Rhodes <p>This research aims to analyse stereotyping as the trigger factor of discrimination in the novel <em>Ghost Boys</em> by Jewell Parker Rhodes. There are two objective of this research; to find out the categories of stereotype and to explain stereotype trigger discrimination. The theory used in this research is categories of stereotype by David Schneider. The type of research is descriptive qualitative study. The primary data in this research is the novel <em>Ghost Boys</em> by Jewell Parker Rhodes. The result of the research is the researcher found that the categories of stereotypes in the novel <em>Ghost Boys</em> by Jewell Parker Rhodes are; gender, race, age, physical features, occupation, and social economic, and language with 38 data. The most dominant data is racial stereotype as much as 50%. Stereotyping trigger discrimination in the form; of verbal expression, avoidance, exclusion, and physical abuse with 25 data, the most dominant is physical abuse as much as 36%.</p> Elma Sukma Nugraha, Siti Hafsah Copyright (c) 2023 Elma Sukma Nugraha, Siti Hafsah Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Influences of Conflicts toward Social Aspects in The Casual Vacancy novel by J. K. Rowling <p>This thesis explores the influences of conflicts toward social aspects in <em>The Casual Vacancy </em>novel by J. K. Rowling. There are two objectives of this research; 1) To find out the forms of conflicts int the novel <em>The Casual Vacancy </em>by J. K. Rowling and 2) To explain the conflicts influences the social aspects in the novel <em>The Casual Vacancy </em>by J. K. Rowling. In researching a literary work related to social. The researcher uses Sociology of Literature approach, conflict theory by Lewis Alfred Coser and Social Aspects. The methodology in this study is qualitative research by taking data from quotations in the novel which the researcher conveys descriptively. The result of this research is internal conflict showing the conflict influences the social aspects, it is social relationship. The second result of this research is internal conflict showing the conflict influences the social aspects, it is criminality. Conflict that occurs between two different groups, which will strengthen the conflicting group by providing clear boundaries with other groups. These two conflicts influence social aspects with insignificant result. It means a way of viewing situation, condition and issues in the society can show internal and external conflicts in daily life.</p> Eka Puspita Sari, Wahyuni Copyright (c) 2023 Eka Puspita Sari, Wahyuni Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Psychological Barrier Towards Devotion of Relationship in The Notebook by Nicholas Sparks <p>This research studies of Psychological Barrier Toward Devotion Of Relationship In The Novel Notebook by Nicholas Sparks. There are two objectives of this research; 1). What psychological barrier are faced by the main character in the novel 2). How does the main character devote to his relationship. The theory used in this research is the Individual Psychology theory according to Alfred Adler with structural two elements as such inferiority feeling and striving for superiority. The methodology employed is qualitative research with the primary data in which the researcher tried to present the issues descriptively. As for the data, they were collected from the novel. While the secondary data and other related sources. The data were collected through library research. The result of the research, the researcher found the factor of psycholgy barrier and Devotion which contains in two elements. Meanwhile, the researcher found that there are three factor from psychological barrier such as incapability of physical health, social status, and lack of support. The factor of devotion are four such as consistenly, trustworthy, patiently, and sacrifice to portray from main character.</p> Eri Yuliyanti Kadjan, Adi Prautomo Copyright (c) 2023 Eri Yuliyanti Kadjan, Adi Prautomo Sun, 01 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bordieuan Reading on O.Henry’s Mammon and the Archer <p><em>This study employs a Bordieuan framework to conduct a sociological analysis of O. Henry's short story, "Mammon and the Archer." By applying this theoretical lens, the emphasis is on the complex interplay of cultural, social, and economic capitals, contextualizing the socioeconomic context of the Gilded Age. Through this sociological examination, the present study unravels the motivations that drive the characters, exposes the underlying social hierarchies, and elucidates the pervasive influence of wealth on their actions. This analysis provides valuable insights into the era's power dynamics and class distinctions, portraying how the pursuit of material wealth shaped the lives of individuals during this pivotal period in American history. "Mammon and the Archer" by O. Henry, analyzed through Pierre Bourdieu's sociological framework, unravels the intricate relationships between cultural, social, and economic capitals. Consequently, this analysis contributes to a richer understanding of the narrative's multifaceted dimensions and prevailing relevance in a historical context.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Betty Sianturi Copyright (c) 2023 Betty Sianturi Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000